[Acroptilon repens (L.) DC.] In larger infestations, lateral roots of older plants left behind can give rise to new plants. Once established, Russian knapweed spreads mainly by underground root stocks as seed production is limited compared with other knapweed species. An established market exists for milkweed seed floss as a nonallergenic fill to replace imported duck and goose down in comforters and for seed sales in prairie restorations and butterfly gardens. The seed generally germinates in the summer and fall, and the plant overwinters as a rosette. Matricaria discoidea). Chemical. Once established in an area, the plant can be spread on farm equipment, in manure and by wildlife that feed on the seed. However, herbicides at labeled rates for cropland use will not control Russian knapweed. An option for Canada thistle in row crops and fallow that includes both tillage and herbicides is known as the rosette technique. Both chamomile species are annual herbs and have white daisylike flowers. Inflorescence is dense, slender, usually drooping, one-sided, and 2 to 6 inches in length. Because of the large taproot and the ability to produce millions of seeds in a small area, this plant is difficult to remove once it has established in an area. The size and location of a specific infestation will determine the best control methods. Pineapple weed flowers may become bitter by the time the plant blooms, but are still good to eat. The stems die back to the soil surface each year. Mowing before the flowers start showing color is important because plants mowed after that likely will produce some viable seed. Kochia is highly adaptable and can be found on pasture, rangeland, road sides, ditch banks, wastelands and cultivated fields. However, applying herbicides in combination with cultivation has been successful in reducing both field bindweed infestations and the number of tillage operations. Larger infestations require treatment with herbicides and/or biological control agents. Under optimum conditions, the plant can grow 2 to 3 inches per day. Canada thistle grows best in the northern regions of North America where temperature and rainfall are moderate. Most yellow starthistle seeds are plumed and disperse when mature. The flowers are gumdrop shaped, large (2 to 3 inches tall), with long, stiff, yellow-tipped spines. Cultural. Flower color ranges from red to burgundy. Fall is the preferred time for applying herbicides for biennial thistle control. The wings are very spiny and are continuous along the stem and not interrupted as musk thistle. Foliar-applied herbicides must be applied before Palmer amaranth plants are taller than 4 inches. Seeds are borne in pods, which contain three gray-brown, oblong, smooth seeds. The most identifiable characteristic of purple loosestrife is the striking rose to purple flowers. Biological. Dame’s rocket flowers are found from early May through June, fragrant and generally purple but occasionally pink or white. The knapweeds are one of the most rapidly spreading invasive species in the western U.S. Knapweeds already infest more acreage than leafy spurge in Montana and Minnesota, and have been found in more than 25 counties in North Dakota. Canada thistle has an extensive underground root system that may penetrate the soil to a depth of 10 feet or more and grow laterally 12 to 15 feet per year. It is considered to be the true chamomile and is used in landscapes as a flowering groundcover or lawn substitute. Feel free to use and share this content, but please do so under the conditions of our, Identification and Control of Invasive and Troublesome Weeds in North Dakota. Biological. Musk thistle often grows in excess of 6 feet tall, has very large flowers that tend to droop, and the flower has very characteristic brown bracts that resemble a pine cone. However, yellow toadflax has been found in many counties across the state and is on the verge of becoming a major problem for land managers in North Dakota. Sheep are more resistant to the pyrrolizidine alkaloids than other livestock, while horses, especially when confined to small areas infested with houndstongue, are more likely to ingest toxic levels. Scotch thistle can thrive in well-drained, sandy or stony soils. Palmer amaranth spreads from region to region as a contaminant in seed, livestock feed and hay. However, to present symptoms, such as the inability to eat or drink, stiff or trembling legs and a stiff, swollen, “frozen” face, a horse must eat an amount nearly equivalent to its body weight. Plants flower from May to June and begin producing seeds by July. In addition, unpleasant tasting milk may result when dairy cattle graze the leaves of common tansy. Milkweed grows over a wide range of soil moisture conditions, but can become dense under medium or high moisture levels.
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