, 1944–1945 Japanese suicidal aircraft attacks. USS LCI(G)-474 sunk off Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands, 17 February 1945. PT-279 lost in collision, off Bougainville, Solomon Islands, 11 February 1944. YP-88 destroyed by grounding at Amchitka, Aleutian Islands, 28 October 1943. The task facing the Japanese air forces seemed impossible. Like all Army and Navy servicemen, the kamikaze would wear their senninbari, a "belt of a thousand stitches" given to them by their mothers. USS YMS-50 sunk by a mine off Balikpapan, Philippine Islands, 18 June 1945. LCT(5)-175 sunk, 21 February 1945. The U.S. Fast Carrier Task Force alone could bring over 1,000 fighter aircraft into play. USS Block Island (CVE-21) sunk after being torpedoed by German submarine U-549 northwest of the Canary Islands, 29 May 1944. USS LCI(L)-92 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944. Patrol Ships USS St. PT-135 grounded in enemy waters and destroyed to prevent capture, near Crater Point, New Britain, 12 April 1944. were stigmatized in the years following the war. USS Corvina (SS-226) sunk after being torpedoed by Japanese submarine I-176 southwest of Truk, Caroline Islands, 16 November 1943. USS PGM-27 destroyed by grounding during typhoon at Buckner Bay, Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 9 October 1945. LCT(5)-364 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944. They had lost several important battles, many of their best pilots had been killed, their aircraft were becoming outdated, and they had lost command of the air. Arima was killed and part of a plane hit Franklin. Many Japanese felt that to be enshrined at Yasukuni was a special honour because the Emperor visited the shrine to pay homage twice a year. USS Johnston (DD-557) sunk by Japanese warships off Samar, Philippine Islands, USS S-27 (SS-132) lost by grounding on a reef off St. Makarius Point, Amchitka, Aleutian Islands, 19 June 1942.  These names were taken from a patriotic death poem, Shikishima no Yamato-gokoro wo hito towaba, asahi ni niou yamazakura bana by the Japanese classical scholar, Motoori Norinaga. Mine sweeper (AM) It was an honour to die for Japan and the Emperor. 17 September 1945.. Pilots would attempt to crash their aircraft into enemy ships in what was called a "body attack" (tai-atari) in planes loaded with bombs, torpedoes or other explosives. Gherardi (DMS-30) was the only ship in a squadron of 11 high-speed minesweepers (also called destroyer minesweepers) that escaped damage by kamikaze attacks during the Battle of Okinawa. USS PC-584 sunk by typhoon at Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 9 October 1945. The first was the USS Laffey (DD-459) which was sunk during the First Naval Battle of Guadalcanal in November, 1942. USS PGM-17 destroyed by grounding off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 4 May 1945. Eagle (PE) PT-77 sunk in error by the USS Conyngham (DD-371) and USS Lough (DE-586) near Talin Point, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 1 February 1945. USS Strong (DD-467) sunk after being torpedoed by Japanese destroyer off New Georgia, Solomon Islands, 5 July 1943. By 1945, large numbers of anti-aircraft shells with radio frequency proximity fuzes, on average seven times more effective than regular shells, became available, and the U.S. Navy recommended their use against kamikaze attacks. Firsthand interviews with surviving kamikaze and escort pilots has revealed that they were motivated by a desire to protect their families from perceived atrocities and possible extinction at the hands of the Allies. PT-173 lost in transit, tanker torpedoed by Japanese submarine I-17, 100 miles south of Noumea, New Caledonia, 24 May 1943. LCT(5)-215 sunk off Salerno, Italy, 1943. When a kamikaze hits a Limey carrier it's just a case of 'Sweepers, man your brooms'.". PT-31 grounded in enemy waters and destroyed to prevent capture, Subic Bay, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 19 January 1942. LCT(5)-196 sunk off Salerno, Italy, 27 September 1943. Destroyer, Escort Vessel (DE) " Okamura is credited with being the first to propose the kamikaze attacks. I am going because I was ordered to.". The names of the four sub-units within the Kamikaze Special Attack Force were Unit Shikishima, Unit Yamato, Unit Asahi and Unit Yamazakura. Post-war analysis showed that some British carriers such as HMS Formidable suffered structural damage that led to them being scrapped, as being beyond economic repair. USS Underhill (DE-682) sunk by Japanese human torpedo northeast of Luzon, Philippine Islands, 24 July 1945. USS S-28 (SS-133) failed to surface during training exercises with the USCGC Reliance (WPC-150) off Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 4 July 1944. USS Perry (DMS-17) sunk by a mine off Palau, Caroline Islands, 13 September, 1944. PT-35 destroyed to prevent capture, Cebu City, Cebu, Philippine Islands, 12 April 1942. Only Kamikaze and Harukaze survived the war, but Harukaze was in such poor condition when surrendered at … I would say , In August 1944, it was announced by the Domei news agency that a flight instructor named Takeo Tagata was training pilots in Taiwan for suicide missions. USS Leopold (DE-319) sunk after being torpedoed by German submarine U-255 south of Iceland, 10 March 1944. , U.S. carriers, with their wooden flight decks, appeared to suffer more damage from kamikaze hits than the armored-decked carriers from the British Pacific Fleet. Tropical diseases, as well as shortages of spare parts and fuel, made operations more and more difficult for the IJNAS. USS Moonstone (PYc-9) sunk after collision with the USS Greer (DD-145) off the Delaware Capes, Delaware, 16 October 1943. The word originated from Makurakotoba of waka poetry modifying "Ise" and has been used since August 1281 to refer to the major typhoons that dispersed Mongol-Koryo fleets who invaded Japan under Kublai Khan in 1274. Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka rocket planes, launched from bombers, were first deployed in kamikaze attacks from March 1945. Displayed here are items in the collection of the National Naval Aviation Museum relating to kamikaze attacks during World War II.  They also composed and read a death poem, a tradition stemming from the samurai, who did so before committing seppuku. LCT(5)-315 sunk at Eniwetok Atoll, Marshall Islands, 23 March 1944. USS LST-43 sunk by explosion at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 21 May 1944. Allied aviators called the action the "Great Marianas Turkey Shoot". This plan also called for around-the-clock fighter patrols over Allied fleets, though the U.S. Navy had cut back training of fighter pilots so there were not enough Navy pilots available to counter the kamikaze threat. The Japanese high command and propagandists seized on Arima's example. Australian journalists Denis and Peggy Warner, in a 1982 book with Japanese naval historian Sadao Seno (The Sacred Warriors: Japan's Suicide Legions), arrived at a total of 57 ships sunk by kamikazes. USS Lagarto (SS-371) sunk by Japanese minelayer Hatsutaka in the Gulf of Siam, 3 May 1945. USS PGM-7 sunk in collision in the Bismarck Sea, 18 July 1944. According to some accounts, two made suicide attacks, one of which hit USS Indiana.. USS LST- 906 grounded off Leghorn, Italy, 18 October 1944, and scrapped, 22 June 1945.. On 20 March, the submarine USS Devilfish survived a hit from an aircraft just off Japan. III) (LCS(L)) USS Crow (AMc-20) sunk by erratic running aircraft torpedo in Puget Sound, Washington, 23 August 1943. USS LCS(L)(3)-127 sunk off California, 5 March 1945, and stricken from the Navy List, 30 March 1945. Numbers quoted vary, but at least 47 Allied vessels, from PT boats to escort carriers, were … USS S-39 (SS-144) lost by grounding south off Rossel Island, Louisiade Archipelago, The attack, which killed 47 crewmen, took place less than two hours before the destroyer was to be relieved by another ship in … USS Tullibee (SS-284) sunk by own torpedo north of Palau, Caroline Islands, 26 March 1944.  Saburō Sakai said: "We never dared to question orders, to doubt authority, to do anything but immediately carry out all the commands of our superiors. PT-119 destroyed by fire in port, Tufi, New Guinea, 17 March 1943. USS LST-348 sunk by German submarine U-410 off Anzio, Italy, 20 February 1944. PT-22 scrapped after being badly damaged in a storm at Dora Harbor, Alaska, 11 June 1943. In 1890, the Imperial Rescript on Education was passed, under which students were required to ritually recite its oath to offer themselves "courageously to the state" as well as protect the Imperial family. The exact number of ships sunk is a matter of debate. Its non-retractable landing gear was jettisoned shortly after takeoff for a suicide mission, recovered and reused. USS LCI(L)-20 sunk off Anzio, Italy, 22 January 1944. Eight kamikaze hits on five British carriers resulted in only 20 deaths while a combined total of 15 bomb hits, most of 500 kg (1,100 lb) weight or greater, and one torpedo hit on four carriers caused 193 fatal casualties earlier in the war – striking proof of the protective value of the armoured flight deck. , According to some sources, on 14 October 1944, USS Reno was hit by a deliberately crashed Japanese plane. The attacks began in October 1944, at a time when the war was looking increasingly bleak for the Japanese. USS LCS(L)(3)-49 sunk by Suicide boat off Mariveles, Corregidor Channel, Luzon, USS De Haven (DD-469) sunk after being bombed by Japanese aircraft off Savo, Solomon Islands, 1 February 1943. 11 September 1945. USS Vincennes (CA-44) sunk after being torpedoed by Japanese warships off Savo, Solomon Islands, 9 August 1942. USS Portent (AM-106) sunk by a mine off Anzio, Italy, 22 January 1944. When you eliminate all thoughts about life and death, you will be able to totally disregard your earthly life. USS Minivet (AM-371) sunk by a mine in Tsushima Strait, Japan, 29 December 1945. USS Miantonomah (CM-10) sunk by a mine off Le Havre, France, 25 September 1944. USS Sentinel (AM-113) sunk by German aircraft off Licata, Sicily, 12 July 1943. , The tokkōtai pilot's manual told pilots to never close their eyes, as this would lower the chances of hitting their targets. LCT(6)-548 sunk at Portsmouth, England, October 1944. The vessel was named for Seaman Bartlett Laffey, who was awarded a Medal of Honor for bravery during the War Between the States. USS S-26 (SS-131) sunk after collision with submarine chaser PC-460 in the Gulf of Panama, 24 January 1942. At least one of these pilots was a conscripted Korean with a Japanese name, adopted under the pre-war Soshi-kaimei ordinance that compelled Koreans to take Japanese personal names. Asked about the soul of Japan, USS YMS-48 sunk by shore batteries in Manila Bay, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 14 February 1945. USS Pope (DD-225) sunk by Japanese aircraft in the Java Sea, Netherlands East Indies, 1 March 1942. USS YMS-14 sunk in collision in Boston harbor, Massachusetts, 11 January 1945. The following sources also give numbers of total ships sunk by kamikaze aircraft: Lambert (1997, 6) - 56 ships sunk Nagatsuka (1973, 205-12) - 49 ships sunk Yasunobu (1972, 171) - 49 ships sunk Ozawa (1983, 91) - 47 ships sunk Tokkou: Kyokugen no tatakai no subete (2007, 54) - 40 ships sunk Two 100 kg (220 lb) bombs were attached to two fighters, and the pilots took off before dawn, planning to crash into carriers. As the end of the war approached, the Allies did not suffer more serious significant losses, despite having far more ships and facing a greater intensity of kamikaze attacks. Some were unable to stand up and were carried and pushed into the plane by maintenance soldiers. USS YMS-24 sunk by a mine off St. Tropez, France, 15 August 1944. The tradition of death instead of defeat, capture and shame was deeply entrenched in Japanese military culture; one of the primary values in the samurai life and the Bushido code was loyalty and honor until death. LCT(5)-459 sunk off western France, 19 September 1944. USS LCI(L)-1065 sunk off Leyte, Philippine Islands, 24 October 1944. USS R-12 (SS-89) foundered during exercises off Key West, Florida, 12 June 1943. USS Erie (PG-50) torpedoed by German submarine U-163 off Curacao Island, LCT(5)-21 sunk off Oran, Algeria, 1 January 1943. USS Hammann (DD-412) sunk after being torpedoed by the Japanese submarine I-168 northeast of Midway Island, 6 June 1942. U.S. carriers also suffered considerably heavier casualties from kamikaze strikes; for instance, 389 men were killed in one attack on USS Bunker Hill, greater than the combined number of fatalities suffered on all six Royal Navy armoured carriers from all forms of attack during the entire war. USS YMS-70 foundered off Leyte, Philippine Islands, 17 October 1944. , Several suicide attacks, carried out during the invasion of Leyte by Japanese pilots from units other than the Special Attack Force, have been described as the first kamikaze attacks. YP-205 destroyed by grounding, 1 November 1942. PT-164 destroyed by Japanese aircraft bombing, Rendova Harbor, Solomon Islands, USS Beatty (DD-640) sunk after being torpedoed by German aircraft off Cape Bougaroun, Algeria, 6 November 1943. One Corsair and 10 Grumman Avengers were destroyed. USS Halligan (DD-584) sunk after striking a mine off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 26 March 1945. Landing Craft, Infantry (Large) (LCI(L)) YP-16 lost due to Japanese occupation of the Philippine Islands and stricken from the Navy List, 24 July 1942. This account of all ships sunk by kamikazes provides several examples. USS LCI(L)-553 sunk off Northern France, 6 June 1944. LCT(6)-593 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944. USS Meredith (DD-726) sunk by German aircraft after being damaged by a mine in the Bay of the Seine, Normandy, France, 9 June 1944. LCT(6)-703 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944. LCT(6)-1075 sunk off Leyte, Philippine Islands, 10 December 1944. USS YMS-71 sunk by a mine off Brunei, Borneo, 3 April 1945. YP-453 destroyed by grounding in the Bahama Islands, 15 April 1943. LCT(5)-294 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944. LCT(6)-963 sunk at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 21 May 1944. LCT(5)-71 sunk, 11 September 1943. Gordon says that the Warners and Seno included ten ships that did not sink. USS Trout (SS-202) sunk by Japanese destroyer Asahimo southeast of Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 29 February 1944. USS LST-228 destroyed by grounding near Bahia Angra Island, Azores, 21 January 1944. USS Samuel B. Roberts (DE-413) sunk by Japanese warships during the Battle of Leyte Gulf off Samar, Philippine Islands, 25 October 1944. USS Northampton (CA-26) torpedoed by the Japanese destroyer Oyashio on 30 November 1942 during the Battle of Tassafaronga and sank on 1 December 1942. USS Fiske (DE-143) sunk after being torpedoed by German submarine U-804 north of Azores, 2 August 1944. USS YMS-30 sunk by a mine off Anzio, Italy, 25 January 1944. LCT(5)-209 sunk off northern France, 10 June 1944. USS LCS(L)(3)-26 sunk by Suicide boat off Mariveles, Corregidor Channel, Luzon, LCT(5)-25 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944. USS Cushing (DD-376) sunk by gunfire from Japanese warships off Savo, Solomon Islands, 13 November 1942. USS Bonefish (SS-223) sunk by Japanese warships in Toyama Wan, Honshu, Japan, Despite radar detection and cuing, airborne interception, attrition, and massive anti-aircraft barrages, 14 percent of Kamikazes survived to score a hit on a ship; nearly 8.5 percent of all ships hit by Kamikazes sank.. The crashing action which simultaneously kills the enemy and oneself without fail is called the Special Attack ... Every Japanese is capable of becoming a member of the Special Attack Corps. USS SC-694 sunk by aircraft off Palermo, Italy, 23 August 1943. PT-109 sunk after being rammed by Japanese destroyer Amigiri off Kolombangara Island, Blackett Strait, Solomon Islands, 2 August 1943. All of the pilots raised both of their hands, volunteering to join the operation. About 14% of kamikaze attacks managed to hit a ship. USS England (DE-635) seriously damaged by one Kamikaze aircraft, 9 May 1945, off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, and not repaired after the end of the war. LCT(6)-1050 sunk off Ie Shima, Ryukyu Islands, 27 July 1945. by a kamikaze forward of its aft elevator on 25 October), Santee and the smaller escorts USS White Plains, Kalinin Bay and Kitkun Bay. USS Spence (DD-512) capsized during a typhoon in the Philippine Sea, 18 December 1944. PT-67 destroyed by accidental fire while refueling in port, Tufi, New Guinea, 17 March 1943. Motor Gunboat (PGM) Bill Gordon, an American Japanologist who specialises in kamikazes, lists in a 2007 article 47 ships known to have been sunk by kamikaze aircraft. U.S. personnel gave them the derisive nickname "Baka Bombs" (baka is Japanese for "idiot" or "stupid"). YP-95 destroyed by grounding at Adak, Aleutian Islands, 1 May 1944. On 6 April 1945, waves of aircraft made hundreds of attacks in Operation Kikusui ("floating chrysanthemums"). LCT(6)-961 sunk at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 21 May 1944. USS Skylark (AM-63) sunk by a mine off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 28 March 1945. Bibliography. LCT(6)-995 sunk at Guam, Mariana Islands, 21 April 1945. USS Buck (DD-420) sunk after being torpedoed by the German submarine U-616 off Salerno, Italy, 9 October 1943. PT-166 destroyed in error by US Army Air Force B-25 bombers, mistaken identification, off New Georgia, 20 July 1943. USS Truxtun (DD-229) wrecked in a gale at Chamber's Cove, Newfoundland, 18 February 1942. USS Wake (PR-3) captured at Shanghai, China, 7 December 1941. YP-47 sunk by collision off Staten Island, New York, 26 April 1943. Naval Academy, The Catastrophic Fire On Board USS Forrestal, The Sullivan Brothers and the Assignment of Family Members, The African American Experience in the U.S. Navy, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in the U.S. Navy, Contributions of American Indians to the U.S. Navy, Naval Service of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Personnel, The World Cruise of the Great White Fleet, Navy Underwater Archaeology Return Program, Research Permits for Sunken & Terrestrial Military Craft, Scanning, Copyright & Citation Information, Obtain Duplications of Records and Photos, Christening, Launching, and Commissioning of U.S. Navy Ships, Shipboard Life in the pre-1860 U.S. Navy: A Select Bibliography, Ships of the Great White Fleet: From Hampton Roads to San Francisco, Ships of the Great White Fleet: From San Francisco to Puget Sound, Ships of the Great White Fleet: From San Francisco to Manila, Ships of the Great White Fleet: From Manila to Hampton Roads, Casualties Navy and Coast Guard Ships - Continued, Ships Named for Individual Sailors Present at Pearl Harbor, Ships Sunk and Damaged in Action During the Korean Conflict, Documents Relating to Loss of Indianapolis, I-58 Attack Sketch by Mochitsura Hashimoto, Court Martial-Mochitsura Hashimoto Testimony, SECNAV Gordon England 2001 Addition to McVay File, Alexander Russo Paintings of Indianapolis Survivors. USS Swerve (AM-121) sunk by a mine off Anzio, Italy, 9 July 1944. USS Gwin (DD-433) sunk after being torpedoed by Japanese destroyers in Kula Gulf, Solomon Islands, 13 July 1943. LCT(5)-147 sunk off northern France, June 1944.  At Okinawa, kamikaze attacks focused at first on Allied destroyers on picket duty, and then on the carriers in the middle of the fleet. As the end of the war approached, the Allies did not suffer more serious significant losses, despite having far more ships and facing a greater intensity of kamikaze attacks. USS Borie (DD-215) sunk as a result of damage received on the 1 November 1943 ramming of the German submarine U-405 in the North Atlantic, north of the Azores, 2 November, 1943. Porcupine IX-126 on fire.jpg 510 × 293; … On 9 May, Formidable was again damaged by a kamikaze, as were the carrier HMS Victorious and the battleship HMS Howe. USS LSM-20 sunk by Kamikaze attack off Ormoc, Leyte, Philippine Islands, 5 December 1944. Landing Craft, Support (Large)(Mk. PT-371 grounded in enemy waters and destroyed to prevent capture, near Tagalasa, Halmahera, Netherlands East Indies, 19 September 1944. USS PC-1603 damaged by Kamikaze attack off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 21 May 1945, and sunk 26 May 1945.. PT-121 destroyed by Australian aircraft, mistaken identification, Bangula Bay, New Britain, 27 March 1944. USS LSM-318 sunk by Kamikaze attack off Ormoc, Leyte, Philippine Islands, 7 December 1944. USS Duncan (DD-485) sunk after being damaged by gunfire from Japanese off Savo, Solomon Islands, 12 October 1942. Early successes – such as the sinking of USS St. Ships Sunk or Damaged in World War II Ships Home. 13 November 1942. 14 August 1942. USS Stewart (DD-224) captured by the Japanese after being scuttled in a drydock at Surabaya, Java, Netherlands East Indies, 2 March 1942. The kamikaze, along with all Japanese aviators flying over unfriendly territory, were issued (or purchased, if they were officers) a Nambu pistol with which to end their lives if they risked being captured. He lists: It was claimed by the Japanese forces at the time that there were many volunteers for the suicidal forces. LCT(6)-984 sunk, 15 May 1944, and stricken from the Navy List, 9 June 1944. PT-347 destroyed by U.S. Navy aircraft, mistaken identification, near Cape Pomas, New Britain Island, 29 April 1944. Lo – were followed by an immediate expansion of the program, and over the next few months over 2,000 planes made such attacks. USS Hornbill (AMc-13) sunk after collision with the lumber schooner Esther Johnson in San Francisco Bay, California, 30 June 1942. USS Perch (SS-176) scuttled after being damaged by Japanese destroyers Sazanami and Ushio north of Java, Netherlands East Indies, 3 March 1942.  Some persons who obeyed the policy, such as Kiyokuma Okajima, Saburo Shindo and Iyozo Fujita, were also critical of the policy. USS Long (DMS-12) sunk by Kamikaze attack in Lingayen Gulf, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 6 January 1945. Register Military. After the fall of Saipan, the Japanese High Command predicted that the Allies would try to capture the Philippines, strategically important to Tokyo because of the islands' location between the oilfields of Southeast Asia and Japan. Axell and Kase pointed out: "The fact is that innumerable soldiers, sailors and pilots were determined to die, to become eirei, that is 'guardian spirits' of the country. According to a wartime Japanese propaganda announcement, the missions sank 81 ships and damaged 195, and according to a Japanese tally, kamikaze attacks accounted for up to 80% of the U.S. losses in the final phase of the war in the Pacific. From this manual, pilots were told to "attain a high level of spiritual training", and to "keep [their] health in the very best condition". 12 October 1943. Terrible Naval Losses Nine more waves of kamikaze attacks hit the fleet off of Okinawa before the battle came to an end. One Zero attempted to hit the bridge of USS Kitkun Bay but instead exploded on the port catwalk and cartwheeled into the sea. 19 June 1945. USS LCI(L)-219 sunk off northern France, 11 June 1944. USS Quail (AM-15) scuttled off Corregidor, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 6 May 1942. Landing Craft, Infantry (Gunboat) (LCI(G)) USS LST-167 stricken after being damaged beyond repair by Japanese aircraft off Vella Lavella, Solomon Islands, 25 September 1943. USS Parrott (DD-218) scrapped after being damaged beyond repair in a collision with the SS John Norton at Hampton Roads, Virginia, 2 May 1944. USS Shark (SS-174) probably sunk by Japanese destroyer Yamakaze east of Menado, Celebes, 11 February 1942. USS Wasp (CV-7) sunk after being torpedoed by Japanese submarine I-19 south of Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, 15 September 1942. The word 'kamikaze' means 'divine wind' or 'heavenly wind'. Bunker Hill and Franklin were both hit while conducting operations with fully fueled and armed aircraft spotted on deck for takeoff, an extremely vulnerable state for any carrier. Naval War College Analysis, p.1; Parshall and Tully. Probably sunk by the Japanese submarine I-25, 30 July 1942. USS YMS-127 sunk in the Aleutian Islands, 10 January 1944. PT-368 grounded in enemy waters and destroyed to prevent capture, near Cape Salimoedi, Halmahera, Netherlands East Indies, 11 October 1944. PT-301 damaged by explosion in port and scrapped, Mios Woendi, New Guinea, By 17:00, Corsairs were able to land. Glowing in the morning sun. LCT(6)-572 sunk off northern France, June 1944. According to a U.S. Navy report, a kamikaze had been shot down within 75 yards of the bow of the ship on April 6 and three bombs were dropped near the ship on … USS Hovey (DMS-11) sunk after being torpedoed by Japanese aircraft in Lingayen Gulf, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 6 January 1945. USS LST-314 sunk by German motor torpedo boats off Normandy, France, 9 June 1944. " Tetsuzo Iwamoto refused to engage in a kamikaze attack because he thought the task of fighter pilots was to shoot down aircraft.
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